Volume 55, Issue 4 p. 328-336
Original Article

The global burden of conduct disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 2010

Holly E. Erskine

Corresponding Author

Holly E. Erskine

School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston, Qld, Australia

Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Qld, Australia

Correspondence

Holly E. Erskine; Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, Dawson House, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Qld 4076, Australia; Email: [email protected]

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Alize J. Ferrari

Alize J. Ferrari

School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston, Qld, Australia

Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Qld, Australia

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Guilherme V. Polanczyk

Guilherme V. Polanczyk

Department of Psychiatry, Medical School and Research Support Centre on Neurodevelopment and Mental Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

National Institute of Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescents (INCT-CNPq), São Paulo, Brazil

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Terrie E. Moffitt

Terrie E. Moffitt

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK

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Christopher J. L. Murray

Christopher J. L. Murray

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

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Theo Vos

Theo Vos

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

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Harvey A. Whiteford

Harvey A. Whiteford

School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston, Qld, Australia

Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Qld, Australia

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James G. Scott

James G. Scott

Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Qld, Australia

The University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Herston, Qld, Australia

Metro North Mental Health, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Qld, Australia

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First published: 22 January 2014
Citations: 144
Conflicts of interest statement: See acknowledgements for disclosures.

Abstract

Objective

The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) is the first to include conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for burden quantification.

Method

A previous systematic review pooled the available epidemiological data for CD and ADHD, and predicted prevalence by country, region, age and sex for each disorder. Prevalence was then multiplied by a disability weight to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs). As no evidence of deaths resulting directly from either CD or ADHD was found, no years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated. Therefore, the number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was equal to that of YLDs.

Results

Globally, CD was responsible for 5.75 million YLDs/DALYs with ADHD responsible for a further 491,500. Collectively, CD and ADHD accounted for 0.80% of total global YLDs and 0.25% of total global DALYs. In terms of global DALYs, CD was the 72nd leading contributor and among the 15 leading causes in children aged 5–19 years. Between 1990 and 2010, global DALYs attributable to CD and ADHD remained stable after accounting for population growth and ageing.

Conclusions

The global burden of CD and ADHD is significant, particularly in male children. Appropriate allocation of resources to address the high morbidity associated with CD and ADHD is necessary to reduce global burden. However, burden estimation was limited by data lacking for all four epidemiological parameters and by methodological challenges in quantifying disability. Future studies need to address these limitations in order to increase the accuracy of burden quantification.